Research - 6x4 - Text


There are over three decades of research supporting the effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment.  Browse resources below to learn more about the evidence for ACT, including research on rural implementation.


  • Allness, D. J., & Knoedler, W. H. (1998). The PACT model of community-based treatment for persons with severe and persistent mental illness: A manual for PACT start-up. Arlington, VA: NAMI.
  • Brooks, E. B., Jonikas, J. A., Cook, J. A., Engstrom, K., & Witheridge, T. F. (1991). Training staff to provide assertive outreach service to persons with severe mental illness. Chicago, IL: UICC National Research and Training Center on Psychiatric Disability.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Assertive Community Treatment: How to Use the Evidence-Based Practice KITs. DHHS Pub. No. SMA-08-4344, Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Stein, L. I., & Santos, A. B. (1998). Assertive community treatment of persons with severe mental illness. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Harron, B., Burns, B. J., & Swartz, M. (1993). Hospital without walls. Durham, NC: Duke University.
  • Bond, G. R. (1991). Variations in an assertive outreach model. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 52, 65-80.
  • Witheridge, T. F. (1991). The “active ingredients” of assertive outreach. New Directions in Mental Health Services, 52, 47-64.


Rural Implementation Research

  • Dush, D. M., Ayres, S. Y., Curtis, C., Worthington, G. J., Gabriel, R. M., & Chinnery, T. (2001). Reducing psychiatric hospital use through intensive transitional acute care. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 25, 28-34.
  • Fekete, D. M., Bond, G. R., McDonel, E. C., Salyers, M. P., Chen, A., & Miller, L. D. (1998). Rural assertive community treatment: A field experiment. Psychiatric Journal, 21, 371-379.
  • Santos, A. B., Deci, P. A., Lachance, K. R., Dias, J. K., Sloop, T. B., Hiers, T. G., & Bevilacqua, J. J. (1993). Providing assertive community treatment for severely mentally ill patients in a rural area. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 34-39.
  • Harron, B. (1996). Never too far: Rural outreach for serious mental illness. Durham, NC: Duke University.

Research in Oregon

OCEACT staff have published about all the wonderful work ACT programs across Oregon have accomplished to implement high fidelity and recovery-oriented services. This article highlights some of the innovative strategies that Oregon has used to make ACT accessible to as many Oregonians as possible in urban, rural and frontier communities.