There are over three decades of research supporting the effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment.  Browse resources below to learn more about the evidence for ACT, including research on rural implementation.

  • Allness, D. J., & Knoedler, W. H. (1998). The PACT model of community-based treatment for persons with severe and persistent mental illness: A manual for PACT start-up. Arlington, VA: NAMI.

  • Brooks, E. B., Jonikas, J. A., Cook, J. A., Engstrom, K., & Witheridge, T. F. (1991). Training staff to provide assertive outreach service to persons with severe mental illness. Chicago, IL: UICC National Research and Training Center on Psychiatric Disability.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Assertive Community Treatment: How to Use the Evidence-Based Practice KITs. DHHS Pub. No. SMA-08-4344, Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Stein, L. I., & Santos, A. B. (1998). Assertive community treatment of persons with severe mental illness. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Harron, B., Burns, B. J., & Swartz, M. (1993). Hospital without walls. Durham, NC: Duke University.
  • Bond, G. R. (1991). Variations in an assertive outreach model. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 52, 65-80.
  • Witheridge, T. F. (1991). The “active ingredients” of assertive outreach. New Directions in Mental Health Services, 52, 47-64.


Rural Implementation Research

  • Dush, D. M., Ayres, S. Y., Curtis, C., Worthington, G. J., Gabriel, R. M., & Chinnery, T. (2001). Reducing psychiatric hospital use through intensive transitional acute care. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 25, 28-34.
  • Fekete, D. M., Bond, G. R., McDonel, E. C., Salyers, M. P., Chen, A., & Miller, L. D. (1998). Rural assertive community treatment: A field experiment. Psychiatric Journal, 21, 371-379.
  • Santos, A. B., Deci, P. A., Lachance, K. R., Dias, J. K., Sloop, T. B., Hiers, T. G., & Bevilacqua, J. J. (1993). Providing assertive community treatment for severely mentally ill patients in a rural area. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 34-39.
  • Harron, B. (1996). Never too far: Rural outreach for serious mental illness. Durham, NC: Duke University.

Research in Oregon